UPSC 2017: प्री में शामिल होने से पहले इन अंतर्राष्ट्रीय सम्मेलनों के बारे में जरूर जानें, प्रश्न पूछे जा सकते हैं

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1. SCO Astana summit

– What is the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)?-

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

Who are the permanent members of the SCO?- The SCO was founded by leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan in 2001. Uzbegistan joined the group later. India and Pakistan signed the memoranda for becoming a permanent member of the SCO in 2016 and have joined SCO as full members on 9th june 2017.

About Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)- SCO is a Eurasian economic, political and military organisation.

– Headquarters: Beijing, China.

– Established: 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders 6 countries viz. China, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It is an outcome of The Shanghai Five grouping established in 1996 by Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. Presently, it has four observers Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran and Mongolia.

2. The COP22 to the UNFCC, 12th session of COP of Parties to Kyoto Protocol (CMP 12), and first session of COP of Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1) were held in Marrakech, Morocco. Nearly 200 nations attending the COP22 to the UNFCC have adopted Marrakech Action Proclamation for Our Climate and Sustainable Development.

What is Paris Agreement on Climate Change?

– It is an international climate deal to combat climate change. It facilitates enforcement of global GHGs reduction measures in the post-2020 i.e. in post Kyoto Protocol scenario. Under it, all countries must pursue to keep global temperature rising below 2°C by 2100 above pre-industrial levels with an ideal target of keeping temperature rise below 1.5°C. It forces developed countries to provide 100 billion dollars annually to the developing counterparts beginning in 2020 to deal with climate change. It empowers countries to determine how to cut their emissions but mandates that they report transparently on those efforts. The threshold for entry into force of the Paris Agreement was achieved on 5th October 2016. India was 62nd country to ratify it on 2 October 2016.

3. ICJ

  • International Court of Justice was established in 1945 via the UN Charter and its jurisdiction is worldwide. It is located in “The Hague” in Netherlands. It is a part of the United Nations. The International Court of Justice acts as a world court. The judgment passed by the ICJ has binding force and are without appeal for the parties concerned. The major functions of the International Court of Justice are to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international organs, agencies, and the UN General Assembly.4. OBOR

    – OBOR is an ambitious China’s ambitious development strategy and framework that aims to boost its connectivity and trade that will that will connect Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. It was proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013. It comprises two components viz. the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. The two-day Belt and Road Forum identified and agreed on 270 deliverable goals of Belt and Road Initiative. India, however, has boycotted the summit owing to sovereignty concerns related to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

    5. SAARC-ISRO– During the 2014 SAARC summit that held in Nepal, the plan for the satellite was announced The beneficiaries of the satellite will be Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Maldives. The 2,230 kg satellite called GSAT-09 has been built by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The satellite will provide a full range of applications and services in the fields of telecommunication and broadcasting applications, namely, Television, Direct-to- Home (DTH), Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), Tele- education, Telemedicine and Disaster Management Support.

    – SAARC- SAARC was founded by seven states in 1985. In 2005, Afghanistan began negotiating their accession to SAARC and formally applied for membership on the same year. States with observer status include Australia, China, the European Union, Iran, Japan, Mauritius, Myanmar, South Korea and the United States. The first SAARC summit was held in Dhaka on 7–8 December 1985 Its member states include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population. SAARC was founded in Dhaka on 8th December, 1985. Its secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal

    6. MTCR

    India became the 35th full member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Earlier in 2015, India’s bid for the membership to the group had failed after it was blocked by Italy. MTCR was established by G-7 countries in 1987. The aim of the MTCR is to restrict the proliferation of missiles, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), complete rocket systems and related technology for those systems capable of carrying a 500 kilogram payload for at least 300 kms, as well as systems intended for the delivery of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). By becoming MTCR member, India will now be able to buy high-end missile technology. India’s inclusion to the MTCR will also strengthen its own export controls, which will in turn help it to justify transferring sensitive technology in front of other MTCR members. Further, it will pave way for India’s bid to become the member of Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), Wassenaar Arrangement (dealing with conventional arms, dual-use goods and technologies) and Australia Group (dealing with chemical weapons).

    7. HEART OF ASIA/ISTANBUL PROCESS

    The sixth edition of ‘Heart of Asia- Istanbul Process of Aghanistan‘ conference, an annual regional gathering of Asian and other countries was held in Amritsar, Punjab (India). It concluded with adaptation of Amritsar Declaration with its prime focus on terrorism. The theme of this edition of the conference was “Addressing Challenges, Achieving Prosperity”.

    – Amritsar Declaration-  ON THE ISSUES OF Terrorism, Drug menace, CCIT, OBOR

    – About Heart of Asia- HoA conference is a part of the Istanbul Process established 2011 which provides a platform to discuss an agenda of regional cooperation with Afghanistan at its centre. 14 participating countries- Russia, China, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Azerbaijan and Turkey.

    8. BRICS-BIMSTEC Outreach Summit- It was also held on side-lines of 2016 BRICS Summit. Leaders from both forums planned to jointly explore possibilities of expanding ties between them on issues such as terrorism, economy, trade and connectivity.

    About BRICS- BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. It was established in2009. Originally it was known as BRIC before the inclusion of South Africa in 2011. The first formal summit was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC). A sub-regional group of seven countries in South Asia and South East Asia lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal viz. Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal. It was established on 6th June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration. It is headquartered at Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    – Headquarters: Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    – The fourth edition of BIMSTEC Summit-2017 will be held in Nepal.

    9. G20 SUMMIT- The 2016 Group of Twenty (G20) Summit was held in Hangzhou, China. It was the eleventh meeting of the G20. It was the first ever G20 summit to be hosted in China. The theme of 2016 G20 Summit: “Toward an Innovative, Invigorated, Interconnected and Inclusive World Economy”.

    – About G20- The Group of Twenty (G20) is the premier forum for its members’ international economic cooperation and decision-making. It was started in 1999 as a meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in the aftermath of the Southeast Asian (Tiger economies) financial crisis. It comprises total 19 countries plus the European Union (EU),

    10. G20 Digital Ministerial Meeting on Digital Economy held in Germany (APRIL 2017)

    The G20 Digital Ministerial Meeting on Digital Economy was held in Dusseldorf, Germany. Ministers responsible for the digital economy from G20 countries had participated in it. It concluded with adaptation of declaration on ‘Shaping Digitalisation for an Interconnected World’.

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